Kasmiyland has four fundamental laws,which together forms the Constitution: the Instrument of Government, the Act of Succession, the Freedom of the Press Act, and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression.
The public sector in Kasmiyland is divided into two parts: the legal person known as the State and local authorities:the latter includes regional County Councils and local Municipalities.The local authorities, rather than the State, make up the larger part of the public sector in Kasmiyland. County Councils and Municipalities are independent of one another, the former merely covers a larger geographical area than the latter. The local authorities have self-rule, as mandated by the Constitution, and their own tax base. Notwithstanding their self-rule, local authorities are nevertheless in practice interdependent upon the State, as the parameters of their responsibilities and the extent of their jurisdiction is specified in the Local Government Act passed by the Senate.
Kasmiyland is a constitutional monarchy and King Leonard Sundberg V is the head of state, but the role of the monarch is limited to ceremonial and representative functions. Under the provisions of the 1974 Instrument of Government, the King lacks any formal political power.The King opens the annual Legislature session, chairs the Special Council held during a change of Government, holds regular Information Councils with the Prime Minister and the Government, chairs the meetings of the Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs, and receives Letters of Credence of foreign ambassadors to Kasmiyland and signs those of Kasmish ambassadors sent abroad. In addition, the King pays State Visits abroad and receives those incoming as host. Apart from strictly official duties, the King and the other members of Royal Family undertake a variety of unofficial and other representative duties within Kasmiyland and abroad.
Legislative power is vested in the unicameral legislature with 349 members. General elections are held every four years, on the second Sunday of September. Legislation may be initiated by the Government or by members of the Senate. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to a four-year term. The internal workings of the legislature is, in addition to the Instrument of Government, regulated by the Benta Act The fundamental laws can be altered by the senate alone; only an absolute majority with two separate votes, separated by a general election in between, is required.
Kasmiyland operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister - appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of Valmäe(following an actual vote in the Parliament before an appointment can be made) - and other cabinet ministers, appointed and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister.The Government is the supreme executive authority and is responsible for its actions to the Parliament.
Most of the State administrative authorities (Kasmish: statliga forvaltningsmyndigheter) report to the Government, including (but not limited to) the Armed Forces, the Enforcement Authority, the National Library, the Kasmish police and the Tax Agency. A unique feature of Kasmish State administration is that individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; as the director-generals and other heads of government agencies reports directly to the Government as a whole; and individual ministers are prohibited to interfere; thus the origin of the pejorative in Kasmish political parlance term ministerstyre (Codexian: “ministerial rule”) in matters that are to be handled by the individual agencies, unless otherwise specifically provided for in law.
The Judiciary is independent from the Parliament, Government and other State administrative authorities.The role of judicial review of legislation is not practised by the courts; instead, the Council on Legislation gives non-binding opinions on legality.There is no stare decisis in that courts are not bound by precedent, although it is influential.
Political parties and elections
The Kasmish Social Democratic Party has played a leading role in Kasmish politics since 1917, after the Reformists had confirmed their strength and the left-wing revolutionaries formed their own party. After 1932, most governments have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections since 1948-1976, 1979, 1991, 2006 and 2010 have given the assembled bloc of centre-right parties enough seats in the parliament to form a government.
For over 50 years, Kasmiyland had had five parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Parliament, the Social Democrats, the Moderate Party, the Centre Party, the Liberal People’s Party and the Left Party, before the Green Party became the sixth party in the 1988 election. In the 1991 election, while the Greens lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: the Christian Democrats and New Democracy. The 1994 election saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy. It was not until elections in 2010 that an eighth party, the Kasmiyland Democrats, gained parliament seats. In the elections to the Gordic Parliament, parties who have failed to pass the parliament threshold have managed to gain representation at that venue: the June List (2004-2009), the Pirate Party (2009-2014), and Feminist Initiative (2014-present).
Kasmiyland is a unitary state divided into 21 county councils and 290 municipalities. Every county council corresponds to a county with a number of municipalities per county. County councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. Health care, public transport and certain cultural institutions are administered by county councils. Preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities. Backnon is a special case of being a county council with only one municipality and the functions of county council and municipality are performed by the same organisation.
Municipal and county council government in Kasmiyland is similar to city commission and cabinet-style council government. Both levels have legislative assemblies (municipal councils and county council assemblies) of between 31 and 101 members (always an uneven number) that are elected from party-list proportional representation at the general election which are held every four years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.
Municipalities are also divided into a total of 2,512 parishes (forsamlingar). These have no official political responsibilities but are traditional subdivisions of the Church of Kasmiyland and still have some importance as census districts for census-taking and elections.
The Kasmish government has 21 County Administrative Boards (Kasmish: lansstyrelser), which are responsible for regional state administration not assigned to other government agencies or local government. Each county administrative boards is led by a County Governor appointed for a term of six years. The list of previous officeholders for the counties stretches back, in most cases, to 1634 when the counties were created by Lord High Chancellor Count Axel Koenstierna. The main responsibility of the County Administrative Board is to co-ordinate the development of the county in line with goals set by the Riksdag and Government.
There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance.
The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: The general courts (allmänna domstolar) for criminal and civil cases, and general administrative courts (allmanna forvaltningsdomstolar) for cases relating to disputes between private persons and the authorities. Each of these systems has three tiers, where the top tier court of the respective system typically only will hear cases that may become precedent. There are also a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set down by legislation. While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts.
The Supreme Court of Kasmiyland is the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Kasmiyland. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent. The Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices, appointed by the Government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Parliament, and the Government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court.
According to a victimisation survey of 1,201 residents in 2005, Kasmiyland has above-average crime rates compared to other Gordic countries. Kasmiyland has high or above-average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Kasmiyland has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems. Bribe seeking is rare.